PRINTING TERMINOLOGY.

Binding - Fastening papers together for easy reading and transport. Papers may be bound together with a variety of materials like wire, thread, glue and plastic combs.
Bleed - An image or printed colour that runs off the edge of the trimmed edge of a page. Bleeds are created by trimming the page after printing. (Full Bleed - Where the image bleeds of all 4 edges of the page.)
Booklet - A collection of pages fastened together to form a book. When compiling a booklet pages must be in multiples of 4. A 4pp (printed page) book will consist of 1 piece of paper folded in half resulting in 4 pages, an 8pp book will be 2 pieces of paper folded in half, a 28pp book will be 7 pieces of paper folded in half and so on.
Blind Embossing - stamping raised letters or images into paper using pressure and a die, but without using foil or ink to add colour to the raised areas.
CMYK - Abbreviation for the four process colour inks: Cyan, Magenta, Yellow and Black (K).
Colour Separation -
Literally speaking the areas of a piece to be printed into its component spot
and process ink colours. Each colour to be printed must have its own printing plate.

Debossing - Pressing letters or illustrations in to a sheet of paper using a metal or plastic die to create a depressed (debossed) image.

Die-cutting - Using a formed "knife" to cut shapes into a piece of paper.

Digital Printing - A type of printing which uses digital imaging process that transfers the image directly on to plain paper imediately, without traditional offset rollers and plates.

DPI (dots per inch) - The number of dots that fit horizontally and vertically in to a one inch measure. Generally the more dots per inch, the more detail is captured and the sharper the resulting image.

Emboss - A process by which a die is used to raise an area of paper.

EPS (Encapsulated Postscript File) - A vector based computer graphics file format.

Finishing - Preparing printed pages for use. Most printed jobs require one or more finishing steps such as trimming, folding or binding.

Foil Stamping - To cover paper with a thin, flexible sheet of metal (eg: Gold) or other material.

Folding - Doubling up a sheet of paper so that one part lies on top of another. Some heavier stocks may require scoring first to create a smooth, straight fold.

Four Colour Process -
A method of printing that uses dots of Cyan (C), Magenta (M) Yellow (Y) and Black (K) to simulate the continuous tones and variety of colours in a colour image such as a photograph.

Gate fold - Two or more parallel folds ona sheet of paper with the end flaps folding inward. (See didagram above)

Grammage - Weight of grams of a quantity of paper cut to sheets that measure 1 square metre.

Halftone - A printed picture that used dots to simulate the tones between light and dark.

Imposition - Refers to assembling printed matter in a way that results in pages appearing in correct sequence.

JPEG - Joint Photographic Electronic Group. A common standard for compressing image data.

Lines Per Inch (LPI) - The number of lines in an inch as found on the screens that create halftones and 4 colour process images. The more lines per inch, the more detailed the printed image.

Pantone Matching System (PMS) - The most widely used system for specifying and blending colours. The Pantone Matching System has over 700 colours, it provides designers with swatches for choosing specific colours and printers the recipes for making the colour.

Paper Types -

Bond Paper: A type of office paper widely used for letterheads and business forms usually about 80gsm.

Cast Coated Paper: A paper that usually has 1 (or 2) surface that is glossy and extremely flat.

Coated Paper: Paper the has an outer layer of caoting applied to one or both sides. The finishes are available in gloss, matt, satin. These types of paper are especially good for reproducing sharp images and fine details.

Laid Finish: A paper with a translucent pattern of lines running both parallel to and across the grain.

Laser compatible: Paper that perfoms well on a laser printer or photocopier.

Linen Finish: Paper that has a texture similar to to linen fabric

Uncoated Paper: Paper that does not have a coating.

Watermarked Paper: Some fine papers contain a watermark that identifies the paper, it does not leave an impression in the paper, instead it leaves behind a translucent mark.

One or more of these terms can be used to describe a paper. If you are unsure of which paper you want to use for your job it is best to speak to us so that samples can be provided.

PDF - Portable Document File. A proprietary format developed by ADobe Systems for the transfer of files across multiple computer platforms.

Perfect Binding - A book binding process where pages are glued together and directly to the cover of the book. The appearance is of a flat spine on the end of the book such as a paperback book.

PMS Colour - A colour chosen from the Pantone Matching System. A PMS colour is also referred to as a spot colour.

Pre-Press - The various printing related services that are performed before the ink is actually put on the printing press (such as: design, imposition, scanning, colour separating, trapping).

Process Colours - See CMYK.

Ream - A package containing 500 sheets of paper.

Registration - The process of aligning the different coloured inks in a printing job so that they are printing correctly next to or over each other.

RGB - Red, Green Blue, the colours used by a computer monitor or TV screen to create colour images (as opposed to the CMYK used in printing).

Saddle Stitch - A book binding process where pages are stapled together through the spine of the book.

Sans Serif - A typeface that has no tails or curled points (serifs) at the ends.

Scoring - Pressing a channel in to a sheet of paper to allow it to fold more cleanly and easily.

Spot Colour - Single colours applied to printing when process colour is not necessary. (i.e. 1 colour, 2 colour or 3 colour printing). They are also used to augment process colours (For example a metallic ink, or special corporate colour).

Swatchbook - A booklet containing paper samples and specifications.

TIFF - Tagged Image File Format. a bitmapped file format used for the reproduction of digitally scanned images such as photographs and illustrations.

Tint - Too vary a colour by adding white. Also a very light variation of a colour.

Trapping - Printing ink over previously printed ink. Trapping is also used to describe the very sligh overlapping of adjacent colours to ensure that no white paper shows where they should touch.

Trimming - Cutting paper after printing to make all the sheets a specified size.

UV Coating - A very slick glossy coating applied to the printed surface and dried on the press with a UV light. Tslick surface of UV coating makes it eye-catching and therefore very popular for printing the covers of paperback novels.

Varnish - a coating printed on top of a printed sheet to protect it or add a finish. A whole sheet may be varnished or just parts of it (spot varnish) to add emphasis and appeal.